Many of these behaviors and strategies exemplify standard practices of good teaching, and others are specific to working with students from diverse cultures. A number of these behaviors and strategies are listed below. Appreciate and accommodate the similarities and differences among the students' cultures.
Effective teachers of culturally diverse students acknowledge both individual and cultural differences enthusiastically and identify these differences in a positive manner. This positive identification creates a basis for the development of effective communication and instructional strategies.
Social skills such as respect and cross-cultural understanding can be modeled, taught, prompted, and reinforced by the teacher. Build relationships with students. Interviews with African-American high school students who presented behavior challenges for staff revealed that they wanted their teachers to discover what their lives were like outside of school and that they wanted an opportunity to partake in the school's reward systems.
Developing an understanding of students' lives also enables the teacher to increase the relevance of lessons and make examples more meaningful. Focus on the ways students learn and observe students to identify their task orientations. Once students' orientations are known, the teacher can structure tasks to take them into account.
For example, before some students can begin a task, they need time to prepare or attend to details. In this case, the teacher can allow time for students to prepare, provide them with advance organizers, and announce how much time will be given for preparation and when the task will begin. This is a positive way to honor their need for preparation, rituals, or customs.
Teach students to match their behaviors to the setting. We all behave differently in different settings. For example, we behave more formally at official ceremonies. Teaching students the differences between their home, school, and community settings can help them switch to appropriate behavior for each context. For example, a teacher may talk about the differences between conversations with friends in the community and conversations with adults at school and discuss how each behavior is valued and useful in that setting.Inside Singapore’s world-class education system
While some students adjust their behavior automatically, others must be taught and provided ample opportunities to practice. Involving families and the community can help students learn to adjust their behavior in each of the settings in which they interact. Empowering Diverse Students with Learning Problems.
Social cohesion in diverse communities
How to meet culturally-diverse students where they are Prepare to teach the culturally diverse students you may have in your classroom using these guidelines and strategies for teaching your lessons to meet the needs of these students. New teachers will find this resource particularly valuable. Includes strategies such as considering students' cultures and language skills when developing learning objectives and instructional activities, monitoring academic progress, and more to help your culturally diverse students be successful.Debates over policy relating to immigration and ethnic diversity in the UK are highly charged and ideological.
The social and economic consequences of mass immigration have risen in prominence in recent years. For some, immigration is essential for maintaining economic competitiveness and supporting a vibrant, progressive and culturally dynamic society.
For others, immigration is seen as a threat to the economic opportunities and living standards of the indigenous population, as well as being damaging to the social fabric of local areas. Influential commentators from both the left and right have argued that immigration harms social cohesion because it increases the level of ethnic and racial diversity in local communities, which serves in turn to drive down trust and erode norms of reciprocity and cooperation.
A good deal of evidence has now been marshalled in support of this claim, with a large number of studies in a range of different contexts finding a negative association between the ethnic diversity of a neighbourhood and the level of trust expressed by individual residents. Given the highly charged and ideological nature of debates over policy relating to immigration and ethnic diversity, it is essential that the evidence base is as robust as possible and not overly reliant on US-based research which may not generalise to the very different historical context of ethnic composition of neighbourhoods in the UK.
If living in an ethnically diverse neighbourhood causes people to distrust and avoid one another, then we should be certain to find evidence of the phenomenon in London — a city which the census showed has a justifiable claim to being the most ethnically diverse conurbation on the planet.
After linking the survey data to information from the census and other sources about the ethnic, social and economic composition of neighbourhoods, we used multi-level models to estimate the conditional association between ethnic diversity at the neighbourhood level and individual assessments of social cohesion. Yet, it is difficult to know a priori exactly what the appropriate spatial scale might be for any particular outcome or mechanism.
We used two different definitions of neighbourhood boundary, with the first smaller units nested within the second, larger ones. LSOA is the lowest level of the neighbourhood statistics geography produced to disseminate the UK census with 4, in Greater London. This compares the ethnic composition of an areal unit to the ethnic composition of the areal sub-units of which it is comprised, with larger differences representing more segregated areas.
A methodological innovation of the study was to include a measure of ethnic segregation within neighbourhoods, alongside a standard index of neighbourhood ethnic diversity. Including a measure of segregation alongside diversity is important because a key moderator of the relationship between ethnic diversity and trust is the level of meaningful social contact between groups. Contact has been shown to substantially reduce prejudice between ethnic groups.
It can be seen that there is much variation in both diversity and segregation among areas in London, and that segregation tends to be highest where diversity is low. Compared to London, most of the rest of England has much lower levels of diversity and higher levels of segregation the latter to a large extent because the measure of segregation almost inevitably obtains a high value at very small values of diversity. In contrast to the vast majority of existing investigations, we found that residents of more ethnically diverse neighbourhoods actually reported higher levels of community cohesion than those who lived in less diverse areas, once levels of economic deprivation and segregation were controlled for.
Those in more segregated neighbourhoods, by contrast, tended to feel their areas were less socially cohesive. An additional insight of the study was to show that these relationships are strongly affected by age. For older Londoners, neighbourhood ethnic diversity is associated with lower ratings of social cohesion, while the pattern is reversed in younger cohorts.
While older Londoners knew a city in their childhoods that was predominantly white, younger cohorts have grown up in and are therefore more comfortable with, a multi-ethnic neighbourhood environment. Ethnic diversity seems not, in and of itself, to drive down community cohesion and trust. In fact, in the highly diverse neighbourhoods that characterise modern London, the opposite appears to be the case, once adequate account is taken of the spatial distribution of immigrant groups within neighbourhoods and the degree of social and economic deprivation experienced by residents.
Ethnic diversity, segregation and the social cohesion of neighbourhoods in London, by Sturgis, P. Brunton-Smith, I. Kuha, J. I congratulate Adam Gray on mentioning religion, which the authors above have conspicuously failed to do. Does that matter?Contact an author. Update request. If you are one of the authors' document, you have the possibility to update some of its metadata by using the editor form.
Advanced search. Browse by More informations. Home Titles list Who are the strangers? Neighbour relations in socially and ethnically heterogeneous residential buildings Book Chapter.
Felder, Maxime. Contact an author Update request. Update Deposited on : View all records: Back to top About Swiss Copyright. Who are the strangers? Neighbour relations in socially and ethnically heterogeneous residential buildings in Geneva.
Divercities: Understanding super diversity in deprived and mixed neighbourhoods. Bristol: Policy Press. In Chapter 2, Maxime Felder investigates the complex relation between interest and indifference and separation and exposure between neighbours in four socially and ethnically heterogeneous buildings in the Swiss city of Geneva.
He looks at the conditions under which urbanites learn about their neighbours and the factors that contribute to maintaining their strangeness meant as unusual and unfamiliar characteristics.
Still, the combination of physical proximity and lack of acquaintance makes neighbours into strangers. Urbanites deal with their life among strangers and the incomplete knowledge they have of their neighbours with a back- and-forth movement between normalising and fantasising. In this way, urban residents balance their need for normality with their attraction to strangeness and diversity. Bristol : Policy Press, This multi-stakeholder community of practice will also pursue systems-oriented dialogue to look at improving the regulatory and funding environment to better support the sociable design of multi-unit housing, and programming that improves health and well-being outcomes.
It has now grown into a multi-stakeholder collaboration across BC.
It soft-launched July The Hey Neighbour! Two rental buildings took part in the pilot. In each building, two residents stepped forward to work with City of Vancouver project staff and their building managers to organize social activities. The pilot was preceded in by research into friendly buildings that produced a series of case studiesand culminated in a tour of friendly buildings attended by a diverse group of stakeholders from the housing, public health, municipal, private and non-profit sectors.
The tour provided an opportunity for the attendees to hear directly from residents and property managers, and see local best practices first-hand. It also started a conversation around the importance of working collaboratively across industries to support increased sociability among neighbours living in multi-unit buildings. To learn more about the Hey Neighbour! Resident Animators Akiko left and Vincent right taking a selfie while planning their first build ing event.
Also featured is a "Junior" Resident Animator. Resident Animators used a simple white board and fun questions to engage busy residents in their building, who otherwise have no time to connect with each other. Resident Animator, Juliana left and her partner, Alex right made lemonades to connect with neighbours during the building's annual barbecue.
We aim to broaden our community of partners and funders. Interested in learning more? Contact Project Director, Michelle Hoar at michelle.
Looking for a meeting space? Room Rentals. Stay connected Join our Mailing List. Tweets by SFUDialogue. Morris J. Creating space for transformative conversations. Hey Neighbour Collective. Building social connectedness and resilience in multi-unit housing. The pilot aimed to: Increase a sense of community amongst residents within their buildings Decrease the frequency and intensity of loneliness among residents Support participating buildings to feel like home, and not just a temporary place of residence Increase sense of responsibility and care over common property amongst residents The pilot was preceded in by research into friendly buildings that produced a series of case studiesand culminated in a tour of friendly buildings attended by a diverse group of stakeholders from the housing, public health, municipal, private and non-profit sectors.
Resident animators Juliana and Harry chat with neighbours. Happy Homes: A toolkit for building sociability through multi-family housing design Designed to Engage: Policy recommendations for promoting sociability in multi-family housing. Catalyst Community Developments Society. Homes That Connect Us: Building social connections and community engagement among residents of multi-family rental housing. Brightside Community Homes Foundation. Connect with us. Tweets by SFUdialogue.To browse Academia.
Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Roberta Marzorati. Neighbour relations in the socially and ethnically diverse centre of a Northern Italian town: the role of housing conditions. Neighbour relations in the socially and ethnically diverse centre of a Northern Italian town: the role of housing conditions The paper explores neighbour relations in the socially mixed centre of the town of Desio, in the metropolitan area of Milan.
Two housing situations are considered to evaluate the extent to which residential proximity can encourage social interaction between socially and culturally distanced groups. The study shows that socio-economic inequalities related to immigrant pathways, and visible in housing conditions and ways of living the home area are crucial to understand localized social relations.
Keywords: neighbourhood, diversity, encounter, spatial proximity, housing, migration The paper explores neighbour relations in the socially mixed centre of the town of Desio, in the metropolitan area of Milan Italy. Two different housing situations in this neighbourhood are considered regarding social relations at the local level and the extent to which physical proximity can promote meaningful encounters in a context marked by ethnic, class and housing differences.
This qualitative study based on ethnographic fieldwork in the neighbourhood aims to contribute to the discussion about living together in diverse urban contexts and to demonstrate the relevance of material conditions on intergroup social relations. The neighbourhood has always been considered a privileged unit of analysis to study the role of spatial proximity in connecting or disconnecting groups.
These issues are part of a more general debate about diversity and social cohesion.
While the idea of diversity negatively affecting social solidarity and social capital has produced empirical evidence, especially in the US Putnamresearch in the UK has shown that there is no strong negative relation between diversity and social cohesion when social inequalities and the different dimensions of social cohesion are taken into account LaurenceLetki Yet, though this approach focuses on the negotiation of difference at the everyday life level, it tends to neglect the material aspects at play where the interactions take or do not take place, as well as wider social, cultural and political processes at stake.
In this respect, Valentine has recently emphasised the importance of inequalities and the history of social experiences and material conditions of people involved in the encounter. My main point is that socio-economic inequalities, visible in housing conditions and ways of living the home area, are crucial if we are to understand local weak and strong ties in the neighbourhood. The mixed historical centre of a town in Brianza Desio has approximately 40, inhabitants.
It is located in the greater metropolitan area of Milan and belongs to the geographical region of Brianza. Like many other towns in this area, it can be considered a suburb of Milan while maintaining a strong local identity. Desio used to have some big industries which shut down in the s. Today the local economy is based on some small and medium sized factories in the mechanical sector, together with services and commercial activities. The presence of big factories attracted workers from the rest of the country, mostly from Sicily and Calabria, especially during the Fifties and Sixties of the last century.
Internal migrants settled in old courtyard houses in the centre, where they rented and then bought a place to stay from original inhabitants who were moving elsewhere in a process of upward mobility. Some of these buildings have been extensively renovated and have become housing for the middle class; others have gone through partial processes of renewal, while others have been completely neglected.
This whole urban process concerning the city and its historical centre in particular is the result of a series of factors: the highly fragmented property situation of courtyard housing has hindered renewal, often left to the goodwill of individual owners, in an almost total absence of incentives and public support; urban planning policies have preferred - instead of valorising the city centre - to invest in new buildings in the outskirts, favouring a process of intense sprawl.
Entire buildings, or portions of them in bad condition have become shelter for groups with scarce economic potential and a difficult access to the formal housing market, namely, international migrants.
Pakistani immigrants found employment as unskilled and skilled workers in the small, medium sized factories which stretch all over the Brianza territory especially in the mechanical and furniture sectors. Today Pakistani people in Desio have one of the highest concentrations in the whole Lombardia region, and, even though absolute numbers are quite small2, the city has come to be an important symbolic point of reference for the Pakistani diaspora in Italy. The history of city centre planning, international migrants living in marginal housing stock, the ageing of the established Italian residents together with the limited arrival of middle class families in recently constructed buildings have given birth to a socially mixed urban area.
The role of spatial proximity in fostering social relations between socially distanced people, and for whom and in which ways the neighbourhood is a relevant dimension of everyday life can thus be observed. This research was conducted with qualitative and ethnographic techniques: 20 interviews were carried out with residents of the historical centre and 10 interviews with key informants local administration, third sector, unions, journalists ; field notes were collected following informal 2 Pakistani citizens registered at the General Register office of the city at the end of were around This number does not include those who are not registered and the undocumented.
Interviews with residents mainly focused on housing pathways, everyday life activities and mobility, local social practices, social relations and the sense of belonging to the neighbourhood. The informal repeated conversations with residents, in particular, revealed important elements of local life in the neighbourhood and the functioning of social networks.
The ambiguous role of spatial proximity: connecting and disconnecting people In this section two different housing situations are considered and described to illustrate the role spatial proximity plays in localised social relations. Parallel lives in the neighbourhood? The first case deals with an area in the centre where some buildings have a high percentage of Pakistani residents. In particular, there is one building entirely inhabited by Pakistani people 16 big apartments hosting around inhabitants.
Such concentration is the consequence of the progressive decay of the building, neglected by its owner, and of Italian residents leaving in search for better housing.This article examines whether perceived neighborhood ethnic diversity is associated with a range of social outcomes in a postindustrial city undergoing regeneration.
The research included a survey in 3 types of deprived area in Glasgow: those undergoing regeneration, those directly adjoining regeneration areas, and those further removed from regeneration areas. In areas undergoing regeneration, perceived diversity was positively associated with many residential, cohesion, safety, and empowerment outcomes.
This was also true, although to a lesser extent, in deprived areas at some distance from regeneration areas.
In areas immediately surrounding the regeneration areas, perceived diversity had mixed associations with residential and safety outcomes and few associations with cohesion and empowerment outcomes. The results suggest that the effects of perceived diversity are context dependent within a city. Moreover, regeneration processes alter neighborhood contexts and therefore enable scale, timing, and duration of diversity to mediate the relationships between perceived diversity and social outcomes.
Many cities in Western societies such as the UK are currently experiencing rapid social change as a result of migration and growing ethnic minority populations Eurostat, As a result, cities are becoming more ethnically diverse, and some neighborhoods within cities are becoming very multicultural.
The reality and perceptions of diversity are particularly important to the fortunes of disadvantaged neighborhoods. This is because these neighborhoods experience many of the problems that growing diversity has been shown to either alleviate e. The importance of both perceptions and reality is illustrated by survey evidence for the UK, which shows that concern about immigration is generally higher in areas with the lowest numbers of immigrants.
The exception to this is that areas where asylum seekers are settled show the highest levels of concern Duffy,and these areas are more likely to be disadvantaged neighborhoods. This article aims to explore the important relationships between perceptions of ethnic diversity and regeneration in a postindustrial city. Glasgow is undergoing state-sponsored regeneration at the same time as it is experiencing a reversal of population decline and rapid ethnic diversification due to migration.
This makes it an ideal setting in which to explore the interplay between the two processes and therefore inform the future study and evaluation of regeneration programs. We consider how perceived diversity forms an important part of the neighborhood contexts that are subject to regeneration treatment and also how changes in perceived diversity can be a by-product of regeneration, which in turn changes the context of both regenerated and other neighborhoods.
We examine how perceptions of ethnic diversity vary across three different types of regeneration area within the city: areas of regeneration and redevelopment; areas receiving people relocated from the regeneration areas; and more residentially stable deprived areas receiving housing improvements and additions.
By looking at the associations between perceptions of diversity and a number of residential and community outcomes for residents in the three types of area, we may enhance our understanding of regeneration in two respects: firstly, whether the achievement of psychosocial and social objectives 1 directly through regeneration is either undermined or boosted by perceptions of diversity and, secondly, whether regeneration is indirectly affecting these outcomes through its impacts on perceptions of diversity in core and nearby locations as a result of housing and relocation processes.
With respect to diversity, the article addresses the issue of whether the effects of perceived ethnic diversity are context dependent and influenced by the scale, timing, and duration of that diversity, as influenced by regeneration. Less often studied are the effects of perceptions of diversity. However, there are several reasons why perceptions may be as important, if not more, than objective levels of diversity, not least the racial proxy theory referred to earlier, although its continued sway over and above the effects of actual levels of ethnic residential concentration has recently been questioned in a European context Dekker, First, people often overestimate the level of diversity in society or their locality, which serves to exacerbate any concerns they might have.
These include neighborhood satisfaction; community cohesion, including social contacts and trust; safety, including antisocial behavior and informal social control; and community empowerment. Neighborhood satisfaction and enjoyment is considered important in situations where regeneration programs aim to make places more sustainable. Community cohesion in the form of feeling connected to, having social contacts with, and trusting other people living in the same locality has been a core aim of urban policy and regeneration strategies in the UK since the late s Kearns, In the UK, neighborhood ethnic diversity measured using a Theil entropy score has been associated with reduced levels of collective efficacy perceived likelihood of neighbor intervention in local disturbancesalthough the effects of perceived diversity have not been studied.
The current Scottish Regeneration Strategy highlights community empowerment as its primary outcome, with benefits in terms of creativity, effectiveness, and democracy Scottish Government, However, the effects of perceived diversity upon community empowerment have not been studied previously.
Regeneration aims to improve a range of outcomes for people and places. However, both objective and perceived ethnic diversity have been shown to bear associations with some of the key residential and social outcomes sought through regeneration e. This would suggest that if regeneration is enacted in ethnically diverse neighborhoods, the challenge for policymakers and practitioners to achieve their desired outcomes might be harder. Research also suggests that high area deprivation, as seen in regeneration areas, either reverses positive effects of diversity or adds to negative effects, thus complicating the task for regeneration.
In the context of many UK towns and cities where growing and substantial diversity is a relatively recent phenomenon, regeneration programs interact with, and may stimulate, different perceptions of diversity in different locations. Yet, it is possible that perceptions of newcomers may change over time if migrants are seen as a positive addition to an area that was previously in demographic and social decline. Though growing ethnic diversity in these traditional White working-class locations may also be perceived negatively, this may be to a lesser degree than in the inner city due to its occurrence at a slower pace and in smaller numbers.
The interconnections between diversity and regeneration are very pertinent in the case of Glasgow. One of the main drivers of the population increase has been migration, mainly composed of European migrant workers, economic migrants from Asia, and asylum seekers from Africa and the Middle East Freeke, His current research explores how issues of ethnic diversity, immigration, and socio-economic inequality contribute to the creation and dissolution of social capital, cohesion, and inter-group relations.
His other interests include the impact of micro- and macro-scale economic hardships for social, civic, and political attitudes and behaviours, and ethnic-inequalities in violent crime. He is interested in social and political attitudes and behaviour and, in particular, how these relate to neighbourhoods and local communities.
He also has interests in structural equation modelling and longitudinal data analysis. Studies demonstrate a negative association between community ethnic diversity and indicators of social cohesion especially attitudes towards neighbours and the communitysuggesting diversity causes a decline in social cohesion.
However, to date, the evidence for this claim is based solely on cross-sectional research. This article performs the first longitudinal test of the impact of diversity, applying fixed-effects modelling methods to three waves of panel data from the British Household Panel Survey, spanning a period of 18 years. Using an indicator of affective attachment, the findings suggest that changes in community diversity do lead to changes in attitudes towards the community.
However, this effect differs by whether the change in diversity stems from a community increasing in diversity around individuals who do not move stayers or individuals moving into more or less diverse communities movers. Increasing diversity undermines attitudes among stayers.
Individuals who move from a diverse to a homogeneous community report improved attitudes. However, there is no effect among individuals who move from a homogeneous to a diverse community. It also demonstrates that multiple causal processes are in operation at the individual-leveloccurring among both stayers and moverswhich collectively contribute to the emergence of average cross-sectional differences in attitudes between communities. Unique insights into the causal impact of community disadvantage also emerge.
With immigration at historically high levels across many European countries, research suggesting ethnic diversity negatively impacts social cohesion has engendered alarm. Although concerns have long existed in the literature, research by Putnam showing evidence of social withdrawal in diverse US communities has generated anxiety across public-political spheres. Assuming a causal effect or lack thereof from cross-sectional findings can be problematic, especially in neighbourhood studies where selection bias is a problem.
This article remedies this omission, examining the effect of community ethnic diversity on a key dimension of social cohesion: community attachment.
Using three waves of panel data for individuals in England and Wales, spanning a period of 18 years, we test the causal assumptions of the effect of ethnic diversity on cohesion. This competition, driven by contextual exposure, has a psychological impact on individuals, translating into feelings of threat, fomenting prejudice, and reducing cohesion.
Conversely, the contact hypothesis posits that exposure to out-groups foments cohesion as diversity increases inter-ethnic interaction. Contact should promote positive inter-group attitudes, eroding prejudice and perceived threat, undermining stereotypes, and generating out-group trust Allport, Given the reviews available, we only briefly summarize the findings see Morales, ; van der Meer and Tolsma, Outside the United States, studies have largely produced mixed results.
Elsewhere, attachment is seen as a distinct dimension of social cohesion, existing alongside social capital with feedback between the two, or as a psychological prerequisite to social capital Perkins, Hughey and Speer,